The development of intelligent, eco-conscious, and user-centric mobility systems stands as a top priority in the global advancement of transportation . Railways are playing a pivotal role in this trajectory, undergoing a metmorphosis amid the evolving technologicallandscape. They are now evolving into smart interconnected systems that are harnessing cutting-edge technologies and data to reshape the passenger experience and drive operational efficiency.
The advent of the concept of Railway 4.0 and more recently, Railway 4.0 and digital railway, characterizes the transformation to the modern requirements of the digital economy. In order to take advantage of growing demands and increase profits in this capital- and asset-intensive industry, railways must harness digitalisation and incorporate technologies like artificial intelligence and data analytics.